Also known as Role Matrix, RACI Chart and ARCI Matrix.
Variants include Responsibility Assignment Matrix, Linear Responsibility Chart, and RASCI.
When multiple people work on a particular project for example, it is easy to assume that someone else is taking care of an activity or assignment. You may hear arguments like, “I didn’t know I was supposed to do it” or “I thought she was working on it”. This may lead to poor team communication, wasted time and inefficient operation. RACI model provides a clear view of what is expected from each stakeholder and how to communicate with each.
A RACI matrix is an effective way of defining roles and responsibilities towards achieving a common goal. It brings clarity to the roles people play within a project, business process, or change initiative. Its a type of stakeholder analysis and can be linked with other project management tools such as the power-interest matrix and the work breakdown structure. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed.
RACI helps identifying who should be approached at any given situation. For example, when consultation is required before taking a particular decision, the Consulted stakeholder should be approached. The RACI model can also reveal issues such as too many responsible persons and not enough communication. It serves as the guiding document that everyone can refer to when needed.
The Four Major Participation Types
Each key activity in a project or business process should be analyzed to determine the participation requirements. These activities are then plotted on the RACI matrix along with the participant stakeholders. RACI is an acronym for the four major participation types that stakeholders might play in any project, process or change situation.
Remember that the assigned resources can be listed as roles, groups or individuals. Furthermore, the rows and columns of the matrix can be swapped so that the rows become the columns, and vice versa. You can also map the activities with the RACI categories, listing the roles, groups or individuals in the table.
It is recommended that each activity receives only one of the RACI categories at most. In some conditions and small teams, the Responsible and Accountable could be the same. In others, the Consulted and Informed could also be the same.
Creating a RACI Matrix
The following steps describe how to create a RACI matrix:
- With your team, clearly explain the purpose for creating the RACI matrix.
- Identify the stakeholders who need to be involved and the main activities that need to be performed.
- Use a flipchart or whiteboard to construct a two-dimensional matrix.
- Enter the activities in the left column and the roles or persons in the top row of the matrix.
- For each activity, identify the Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed.
- Discuss the RACI matrix with the key stakeholders to verify accuracy.
Example – Project Management
This example illustrates the Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed for a particular project in a manufacturing plant. Note how the assigned resources are shown as individual persons.
Example – Process Management
The following example illustrates a RACI matrix that has been conducted for the process of acquiring new equipment by a company’s business unit.
Example – Change Management
The following is an example of a RACI matrix that was created by a management team to help assigning roles and responsibilities for a Six Sigma deployment program.
Another RACI matrix was created to help assigning the Six Sigma belts to implement improvement projects.
A variation of the RACI matrix is the RASCI matrix, where “S” refers to the Support category in terms of providing the necessary resources and other forms of support during the project implementation or process operation.
There are many tools that can help you to create a RACI matrix. One of the simplest ways is to use this template.
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