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RACI Matrix

RACI Matrix

A RACI matrix is an effective way to define the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders towards achieving a common goal. It brings clarity to the roles people play within a project, business process, or change initiative. Its a type of stakeholder analysis and can be linked with other project management tools such as the power-interest matrix and the work breakdown structure. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed.

When several people work on a particular project for example, it is easy to assume that someone else is taking care of a task or assignment. You may hear arguments like, “I didn’t know I was supposed to do it” or “I thought she was working on it”. This may lead to poor team communication and inefficient operation. RACI provides a clear view of what is expected from each stakeholder and how to communicate with each.

RACI helps identifying who should be approached at any given situation. For example, when consultation is required before taking a particular decision, the Consulted stakeholder should be approached. The RACI matrix also reveals issues such as too many responsible persons and not enough communication. It also serves as the guiding document that every stakeholder can refer to when needed.

RACI Categories

The Four Major Participation Types:

Each key activity in a project or business process should be analyzed to determine the participation each stakeholder is expected to have. These activities will then need to be plotted in the RACI matrix along with the stakeholders who are expected to participate. RACI is an acronym for the four major participation types that stakeholders might play in any project, process or change situation:

The roles or persons are plotted along the top of the matrix
while the set of activities are plotted along the left side of the matrix

Remember that the assigned resources or stakeholders can be listed as roles, groups or individuals. Furthermore, the rows and columns of the matrix can be swapped so that the rows become the columns, and vice versa. You can also map the activities with the RACI categories, listing the roles, groups or individuals in the table.

There are different formats of the RACI matrix

How to Create a RACI Matrix

The following describe how to create a RACI matrix:

  • With your team, clearly explain the purpose for creating the RACI matrix.
  • Identify the stakeholders who need to be involved and the main activities that need to be performed.
  • Use a flipchart or whiteboard to construct a two-dimensional matrix.
  • Enter the activities in the left column and the roles or persons in the top row of the matrix.
  • For each activity, identify the Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed.
  • Discuss the RACI matrix with the key stakeholders to verify accuracy.

Project Example

This example illustrates the Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed for a particular project in a manufacturing plant. Note how the assigned resources are shown as individual persons.

Process Example

The following example illustrates a RACI matrix that has been conducted for the process of acquiring new equipment by a company’s business unit.

Change Example

The following is an example of a RACI matrix that was created by a management team to help assigning roles and responsibilities for a Six Sigma deployment program.

Another RACI matrix was created to help assigning the Six Sigma belts to implement improvement projects.

There are many tools that can help you to create a RACI matrix. One of the simplest ways is to use this template.

Further Information

It is recommended that each activity receives only one of the RACI categories at most. In small projects and small teams, however, the Responsible and Accountable can be the same. In other conditions, the Consulted and Informed can also be the same.

A variation of the RACI matrix is the RASCI matrix, where “S” refers to the Support category in terms of providing the necessary resources and other forms of support during the project or process.

Other Formats

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Related Templates