Category: Performance Management

  • Box Plot

    A box plot is a graph that shows the frequency of numeric data values. It can be drawn either horizontally or vertically. It is referred to as a Box-and-Whisker Plot as it displays the data in a box-and-whiskers format. Box plots are widely used in statistics, scientific research, higher education, process improvement, and in social and human […]

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  • Histogram

    A histogram is a graph which shows the frequency of continuous data values. It is a type of bar chart that can be drawn either vertically or horizontally. Histograms are widely used in statistics, process improvement, scientific research, economics, and in social and human sciences.

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  • Graphical Analysis

    Graphing the data can be utilized for both historical data already available and when analyzing the data resulting from live data collection activities. Of course, you need to pick the right graphical tool as there are a lot of different ways to plot your data. A number of commonly used graphical tools will be covered […]

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  • Normal Distribution

    Continuous distributions describe variables that take values from a continuous range and can be measured with any degree of accuracy. The commonest and the most useful continuous distribution is the normal distribution. The Normal Distribution is a symmetrical probability distribution where most results are located in the middle and few are spread on both sides. […]

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  • Probability Distributions

    Most improvement projects and scientific research studies are conducted with sample data rather than with data from an entire population. A Probability Distribution is a way to shape the sample data to make predictions and draw conclusions about an entire population. It refers to the frequency at which some events or experiments occur. It helps […]

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  • Descriptive Statistics

    Descriptive statistics are methods of describing the characteristics of a data set. It includes calculating things such as the average of the data, its spread and the shape it produces. It involves describing, summarizing and organizing the data so it can be easily understood. Graphical displays are often used along with the quantitative measures to […]

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  • Value Analysis

    Value is one of the most important concepts within Lean thinking and one of the most valuable outcomes Lean provides. Value Analysis focuses on what adds value to business processes as perceived by the customer. A process that does not add value to the product or service should be redesigned or eliminated altogether. Problem solving […]

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  • Waste Analysis

    In a Lean culture, Waste is anything that doesn’t add value from the customer’s perspective. It includes activities and resources beyond what is needed to meet customer requirements. Waste Analysis involves identifying, quantifying, eliminating and preventing waste in manufacturing, service and office environments. Many Lean tools and techniques focus on continually identifying and eliminating these […]

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  • Value Stream Mapping

    A Value Stream Map (VSM) is a high-level visual representation of a business process. It helps to understand the flow of value in the process as perceived by the customer. Its primary goal is to identify and eliminate waste (Muda) and make the process as close to lean as possible. Although it is often associated […]

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  • Histograms and Box Plots

    Histograms and box plots are graphical representations for the frequency of numeric data values. They aim to describe the data and explore the central tendency and variability before using advanced statistical analysis techniques. In this article, we will further discuss the similarities and differences between these two tools.

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