
WhyWhy Diagram
5 Whys is most effective when used to solve simple problems with a single root cause. Oftentimes, a problem is the result of multiple causes occurring together. Each cause is the result of a further cause or multiple causes. Each time you ask why, there might be more than one answer. Such hierarchical structure of […]

5 Whys
Also known as Five Whys. Variants include Therefore Test and So What Test. 5 Whys is one of the common techniques for problemsolving and root cause analysis. It is also one of the simplest techniques and easiest to put into practice. It is used in everyday business situations to identify the possible causes underlying a […]

A3 Thinking
Also known as A3 Problem Solving. Variants include 8D and CAPA. As a leader, a big part of your job is to solve problems as they come up. There are many approaches and tools that can help in the area of problem solving which is the driving force behind continuous improvement. They range from the […]

Box Plot
Also known as Box and Whisker Plot and Whisker Plot. A box plot is a graph that shows the frequency of numeric data values. It is mainly used to explore data as well as to present the data in an easy and understandable manner. Box plots are one of the easiest and most useful ways to understand […]

Graphical Analysis
Graphing the data can be utilized for both historical data already available and when analyzing the data resulting from live data collection activities. Of course, you need to pick the right graphical tool as there are a lot of different ways to plot your data. A number of commonly used graphical tools will be covered […]

Normal Distribution
Continuous distributions describe variables that take values from a continuous range and can be measured with any degree of accuracy. The commonest and the most useful continuous distribution is the normal distribution. The Normal Distribution is a symmetrical probability distribution where most results are located in the middle and few are spread on both sides. […]

Probability Distributions
Most improvement projects and scientific research studies are conducted with sample data rather than with data from an entire population. A Probability Distribution is a way to shape the sample data to make predictions and draw conclusions about an entire population. It refers to the frequency at which some events or experiments occur. It helps […]

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics are methods of describing the characteristics of a data set. It includes calculating things such as the average of the data, its spread and the shape it produces. It involves describing, summarizing and organizing the data so it can be easily understood. Graphical displays are often used along with the quantitative measures to […]

Relationship Mapping
A Relationship Map is a visual display that shows the relationships between individual items. It allows to see and analyze the logical links between the different elements of any situation. A simple example of a relationship map is your network of personal and social relations. Another example is what is called the Interrelationship Digraph which […]