## Bar Charts:

**Bar charts** are ways of displaying frequency of occurrence of attribute data. They focus on the absolute value of the data while a pie chart focuses on the relative value of the data. The bar height indicates the number of times a particular characteristic was observed. The bars on the chart may be arranged in any order and are presented either horizontally or vertically to show comparisons among categories. When a bar chart presents the categories in descending order of frequency, this is called a **Pareto Chart**.

Some bar charts display bars clustered in groups, and these are called **Grouped Bar Charts**. Other bar charts stack bars of each group on top of each other to show the cumulative effect, and these are called **Stacked Bar Charts**. A **100% Staked Bar Chart** is used for comparing proportions of categorical data and are useful for demonstrating the difference in proportion between categories.

## Histograms:

Click here for our informative article, Histograms and Boxplots.

## Dotplots:

A **Dotplot** is a graphical representation of data using dots plotted on a simple scale. It is a form of frequency distribution that is suitable for displaying small to moderate data sets when the values are not spread out very much. The X-axis in a dotplot is divided into many small intervals called bins, and data values falling within each bin are represented by dots (one or more dots per data point). The end result is a set of vertical lines of evenly-spaced dots.

A dotplot is generally used when the data is discrete, however, it can also be used to present continuous data. It shows where the data are clustered, where the gaps are located and can help identify outliers. Dotplots are also useful for comparing distributions in terms of their shape, location and spread.

**count data**).

**continuous variable**). Note that each dot represents up to 4 observations.

## Boxplots:

Click here for our informative article, Histograms and Boxplots.